Pure water is essentially colorless in science and nature. It does, however, absorb somewhat more red light than blue light, giving vast volumes of water a BLUE hue; greater dispersion of blue light owing to small particles in the water moves the blue color toward green, resulting in a generally cyan net color.
The reason for this is that blue light has a higher energy or wave length than red light. This means that it can break down molecules much easier including any that may be dissolved in the water. The electrons from the broken down molecules then become free electrons and cancel out any positive charges on the molecule. This leaves just the opposite charge: negative. Since these are now negative charges they can attract other negative charges which can lead to the formation of ions. Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that have lost or gained electrons and as such have a net charge. If there are enough ions in the water they will form a colloid. Colloids are dispersions of large particles that remain suspended in liquid mediums because of their attractive forces with each other. In other words, if you were to put some water into a glass jar and were to leave it alone for a while you would probably see particles of food dye mixed in with the water because it is easy for particles this small to float around in liquid.
Ions are very important in chemistry because they provide electrical charge to conduct electricity. They are also needed for biochemical reactions to take place.
Water looks colorless to the human eye in tiny quantities (e.g., in a glass). The color of water changes depending on the environment in which it is found. While little amounts of water look colorless, pure water has a subtle blue tint that grows darker as the thickness changes. This is because light is refracted by the thin layer of water between your eye and the surface of the liquid.
When you add substances to water that are able to absorb certain wavelengths of light, then they will change the color of the water. For example, if you add food coloring to water, it will change the color of the water to match the color of the food coloring. Similarly, if you add sulfur compounds to water, it will also change the color of the water. Sulfur compounds are found in coal tar, petroleum products, and natural gas. The addition of these substances can cause problems for people who live near ponds or lakes because they may see them as colorless when they are actually yellow or blue.
The most common substance added to water to make it look bluer is chlorine. Chlorine is used in swimming pools, hot springs, and other bodies of water to purify them. It adds a green color to water because chlorophyll causes the water to take on this color. However, high levels of chlorine can be toxic to humans so it is best to follow package instructions when adding it to water.
The water is not colorless; even clean water has a small blue hue to it, which is best visible while gazing through a tall column of water. The blueness of water is not created by light dispersion, which is what causes the sky to look blue. Rather, it results from absorption of red and orange wavelengths around 200 nm. Water absorbs these colors more than other wavelengths, so it appears bluish.
Water is a polar molecule, which means that its molecules possess a net electric charge due to their partial positive and negative ends. This charge causes water molecules to stick together via electrostatic forces, forming hydrogen bonds with each other and with other substances. Because the oxygen atoms are slightly electronegative, they attract electrons from other elements including metals and humans. That's why when you pour a glass of water into a metal glass, it will develop a green tint due to the formation of a metallic oxide film on the surface of the glass. This film inhibits further oxidation reactions on the surface of the glass so it doesn't turn brown or white.
Because of its unique molecular structure, only water can form these strong intermolecular forces with itself and other substances. Other liquids such as ethylene glycol or propylene glycol have different molecular structures so they cannot form these stable hydrogen bonds.
Except for a few, water can absorb all colors. However, two primary wavelengths of light are not absorbed. These are the hues blue and green. Water, in reality, works as a reflector against blue and green, giving the water a turquoise appearance. The deeper the color, the more dye is present.
Ocean water is made up of tiny particles called phytoplankton that drift through the water searching for food. When they die, they sink to the bottom where they decompose and release chemicals that give the water its color. As they decay, they also contain nutrients that help other plants and animals survive in the water. Just like land plants, seaweed uses the sun's energy to grow and reproduce. Although most of it dies and sinks to the bottom, some of it gets blown by the wind onto shore where it forms colorful cliffs or beds.
The word "turquoise" comes from the French term for a Turkish stone, terceira. In the 16th century, Portuguese sailors first saw the beautiful blues and greens of the Azores Islands off the coast of Africa and named them "terceiras" meaning "noble" or "princely". From there, they began trading the stones with Europeans for guns and powder. The name "turquoise" eventually came to mean any deep blue gemstone.
Lakes with crystal clean water Longer visible wavelengths (for example, red light at 600–700 nm) are absorbed by water molecules, but shorter blue wavelengths (500 nm) travel deeper into the water column. In clean lakes, these short wavelengths scatter, resulting in a deep blue hue.
In less clean waters, an orange or brown color results from the presence of chlorophyll-based organisms called phytoplankton. The green color of vegetation is due to the fact that plants use photosynthesis to capture energy from sunlight. As long as there is oxygen present in sufficient quantities, plants will not die off. However, if left unchecked, algae will grow rapidly and consume all available oxygen in the water. When this happens, you get a dead zone - an area of depleted oxygen content - that prevents other organisms from surviving either.
When clouds pass over a lake, they release any moisture they contain into the atmosphere. Some of this liquid will fall as rain, while the rest will remain in the cloud as vapor. Some of this vapor will be ready to drop as snow when it reaches higher elevations, while the rest will turn into clouds of ice crystals when it cools down. Snow and ice reflect light of all colors, including blue, which is why white clouds look blue on a cold day.