The picaresque book began in Spain with Lazarillo de Tormes (1554; doubtfully credited to Diego Hurtado de Mendoza), in which the impoverished kid Lazaro chronicles his duties under seven consecutive lay and ecclesiastical masters, each of whose questionable nature is concealed behind a mask of hypocrisy. The book was enormously popular and spawned a series of sequels and imitators.
The term "picaresque" comes from the name of a Spanish criminal class that used to mock-execute prisoners during Carnival time. Their crimes were usually trivial offenses such as stealing or picking pockets, for which they would wear wooden masks to conceal their identity. They would then take the victim to an isolated place and force them to drink large amounts of wine or beer until they passed out. When awake, the victim would be stripped of all his or her belongings and left to find his or herself a new master.
In England, the term "picarico" was applied to a dissolute young man about town. It is likely that this usage influenced the naming of the genre in English literature, although there are also claims that it is derived from the French piquet, meaning small stick, because these criminals made their victims eat dirt or use their fingernails off their hands as they were forced to work for food.
Robert Doisneau was a pioneer of photojournalism and a promoter of humanist photography. His classic black and white photographs of Parisian life are still recognizable today. Several photographic awards were bestowed upon him during his lifetime, and his work is still published and shown abroad.
He was born on January 4th, 1918 in Saint-Denis, a northern suburb of Paris. His father was an insurance agent and his mother was a housewife who enjoyed taking photos with her family camera. When he was only nine years old, his parents divorced and he went to live with his mother in Paris. She worked as a secretary for the French government while Robert went to school until he graduated from high school. Then he started learning photography at the Arts et Métiers University before going to fight in World War II.
During the war, he worked for the French newspaper Le Matin as a photographer. After being demobilized in 1946, he decided to go back to Paris where he started working for various newspapers including Paris-Presse, France Soir, and Paris-Match. In addition to news photography, he shot portraits, events, and commercials.
In 1951, he met Henri Cartier-Bresson who invited him to join him at Agence France Presse. Under his guidance, Doisneau learned how to shoot more artistic pictures which brought him fame to himself and his agency.
Alfred Stieglitz, often regarded as the pioneer of modern photography, used his camera to creatively portray his way of seeing. This little film introduces Stieglitz's love of photography and places him in the context of early twentieth-century contemporary art, both as an art dealer and as an artist.
This short film was made by the British Pathé documentary series which aimed to celebrate the cultural achievements of various countries. It uses an eclectic mix of images and music to tell its story about Alfred Stieglitz, a German-American photographer who became one of the most important pioneers of modern photography.
Stieglitz was a successful New York photographer who worked with some of the leading artists of his time. He founded The Camera Club of America and published a magazine called "The Camera". His intimate relationship with Georgia O'Keeffe, one of the most famous American artists of her time, helped him gain recognition as a major force in photography.
In addition to being one of the first photographers to use natural light rather than artificial lights to take pictures, Stieglitz also developed his own photographic process called "photography by number", which meant that he would work from photographs instead of drawing directly on glass plates like other photographers did at the time. This method allowed him to make repeated adjustments to the composition of his images without having to destroy them.
Stieglitz, Alfred The word was coined in 1904 by critic Sadakichi Hartmann in the journal Camera Work and was later pushed as a more pure type of photography than Pictorialism by its editor, Alfred Stieglitz. In the article, "The New Art" (1904), Hartmann wrote that "straight photography" had been invented by Paul Strand, who published images that were "neither photo-lithographs nor photographs in the usual sense of the words".
In fact, Strand had used photos taken from life for several years before he called his style of photography "straight." However, it was Stieglitz who popularized the term and turned it into something of a badge of honor. When asked about the origin of his nickname "the Father of Modern Photography," Stieglitz said: "I suppose it's because I am considered the founder of the American school of photography."
American photographer Edward Steichen also claims to be the father of modern photography, but this claim has never been verified by other photographers or historians of art.
The first true photograph was created by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce in 1828, but it wasn't until almost 100 years later that someone came up with the idea of using photographs for artistic purposes.
Severino Reyes, the author of Walang Sugat, is known as the "Father of Filipino Drama" for his unrivaled zarzuelas as well as his endless Tagalog stories published for many years in the Liwayway Magazine under the title Mga Kwento ni Lola Basyang. He was a prolific writer who lived during the Spanish era in the Philippines.
Reyes was born on August 21st, 1867 in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan to an affluent family. His parents were Severino Reyes and Doña Antonia Barrientos de Reyes. He had six siblings: three brothers and three sisters. His family owned large tracts of land that they rented out to local farmers. He went to school at the age of seven and studied until he reached the age of 16 when he began working in order not to burden his family with his studies. He worked as an editor for the La Solidad newspaper before moving on to become an accountant for the Agustin de Polavieja company. In 1889, he married Maria Luisa Villareal and together they had five children.
During his free time, Reyes wrote poems and short stories which were later turned into plays after he converted to Catholicism. One of his early works is Noli Me Tangere which was performed for the first time in Madrid in 1893.
Alfred Stieglitz was an American photographer who founded the groundbreaking publication Camera Work. His gallery, 291, was a meeting place for contemporary artists in America. He is considered the father of American photography.
Camera Work published eight issues from 1903 to 1910. It is regarded as a revolutionary magazine because of its emphasis on art rather than science. Alfred Stieglitz believed that good photographs could convey ideas and feelings that words could not. By showing the world through images instead of words, he wanted to demonstrate that a photograph can be just as powerful as a piece of literature or music.
He also believed that a collection of good photographs could teach people about different cultures around the world.
Camera Work has been called "the Bible of modern art" because it brought together many artists who would go on to have major influences over the next century. Among them are Paul Cézanne, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet, and August Sander.
Even though Stieglitz was not married to his co-editor, Helene Kuhn, they had a close relationship. She helped him run his business and took part in most of the activities at the gallery.