Put the DOI or URL before the access date at the end of the citation. The remainder of the citation should be structured as if it were for a comparable non-digital source. When employing DOIs, access dates are optional. For example:
Harvard University. School of Law. (2020, May 7). COVID-19 Resources. Retrieved from https://www.law.harvard.edu/news/covid-19-resources
If you have an open access article that was published prior to January 1, 2020, you can use this URL: http://www.publishable.com/how-to-cite-an-open-access-article/ to create a valid reference to your article.
If you have a subscription-based journal, then you need to provide full access to your citations. If you only have online access, then you cannot use these URLs in the references section of your paper.
The Chicago Manual of Style states that "the preferred mode of publication for most scholarly journals is by electronic means," so we recommend you follow their advice and publish your work electronically instead of using hard copies. You will need to provide full access to your citations, however.
If no date is given, that information is skipped. At the conclusion of the citation, it is advised that you provide the date you accessed the material. The access date is supplied by following the term "accessed" with the day, month (shortened), and year the work was accessed or viewed. For example, if you accessed the work on February 2, 2015, you would list this as 02/02/15.
Sources without dates can be difficult to reference because it is not known when they were written or published. If there is no indication of when the source was compiled, it cannot be used. Sources without dates are referred to as primary sources. Secondary sources include books, journals, newspapers, and websites. They use information from other people or organizations to support their arguments or ideas.
Primary sources are considered the most accurate because the author or authors are responsible for creating their own content. If an author's work is being used as a source, it is important to note any inconsistencies or discrepancies between the two sources. This shows where the information may have been changed or removed to make someone look better or worse than they actually are.
Secondary sources are used instead of primary sources when the publication date of the secondary source is known. These sources can be old or new; they just need to be available with enough detail that you can find out when it was published.
Include the DOI for any works that have one in APA format. It should be at the end of your reference list. At the conclusion, there is no period. If your article has no DOI, which is common with older works, just leave it out of the citation. A. A. Author and B. B. Author (Date of publication).
When producing a Works Cited reference for a website, specify the date you accessed the item. The date of access is provided at the conclusion of the citation by day, month, and year. This is called an "access date." You must include this information for every source you use on your website.
There are two types of access dates: physical and chronological. Physical access dates refer to when you first obtained possession of the resource while its chronological date refers to when it was created or published.
For example, if I found an old newspaper article online that was published in 1992 but I did not read until 1998, I would list 1998 as the physical access date and 1992 as the chronological date.
Often times people think that if they don't have physical access to a resource, then their reference should be considered chronological.
This is not correct. If you do not have physical access to a resource, it does not mean that its reference date is the same as its chronological date. In fact, most resources require physical access to examine them closely for errors. This means that even if you find a resource which appears to be error-free on the surface, there may be details about its history that no one knows about yet.