Their debut exhibition, held in Cologne in 1961, featured the three sorts of artworks for which they would become famous: wrapped goods, oil barrels, and ephemeral, large-scale pieces. In 1962, at Christo's first solo show in Paris, the couple closed an alley with 240 barrels for many hours in a performance called Iron Curtain, a lyrical response to the Berlin Wall. In 1964, they produced their first piece of site-specific art, Wrapped Container on the Lake Geneva shoreline. In 1965, they created their first permanent work, The Gates in London's Regents Park.
Christo and Jeanne-Claude began working together in 1969. That year they decided to wrap up a section of highway near Villejuif (a suburb north of Paris) in France. The project took them four years to complete. It was called "The Double Wrap" and it used two layers of fabric attached by nylon threads as its canvas. When it was done it was estimated to be 100 feet long, 35 feet wide and 2 feet high. In 1973, they created their most famous work, The Elephant Gate, which is made up of eight 30-foot-high arches formed by aluminum poles draped in cloth. The following year, they created their largest work to date, The Cloud Gate, which is now located in Chicago's Grant Park. It is a polished stainless steel sculpture that looks like a huge cloud floating in the lake below. In 1977, they finished their last major project together before Jeanne-Claude went her own way again.
Christo and Jeanne-first Claude's cooperation was covering barrels at the port of Cologne in 1961. The pair began their first major project, Rideau de Fer, in 1962. (Iron Curtain). That same year they created Trans-Canada Highway. In 1963 they were invited to create a site-specific work for Montreal's 375th anniversary. The resulting project was Entre Montagnes - Between Mountains.
They started working together regularly in 1964 when they created Refuse Incineration Plant for New York City. From then on, they worked almost every three years. Their next collaboration was entitled Power Station 1970 in Germany. This was followed by Four Seasons 1975 in Canada and Austria. Their most recent work is Gate River 2007 in France.
All together, these projects have taken them to more than 30 countries around the world.
In addition to creating sites-specific works, they also collaborate with museums on exhibition projects. One example is Monumental Axis 1973-74 in Brussels which included two monuments made out of fiberglass and steel tubes. Another is Project for Public Spaces in New York City which aims to revitalize downtown neighborhoods by installing public art spaces. This project was completed in 2003 with more than 50 pieces of art installed throughout the city.
Matisse's first solo exhibition, at Ambroise Vollard's gallery in 1904, was a flop. After spending the summer of 1904 painting in St. Tropez with the neo-Impressionists Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross, his affinity for vibrant and expressive color grew more prominent. Matisse used bright colors to depict the optimism he felt after returning home. The show attracted only 10 visitors.
Two years later, in 1906, he had his second exhibition. This time it was better organized: the paintings were hung chronologically by date instead of randomly. The show attracted many visitors from outside Paris who traveled to see it because of Matisse's reputation as a revolutionary artist. He also received some negative criticism for his use of unusual materials and for his disregard of traditional perspective.
In 1909, Matisse moved to an apartment on the third floor of a building on Rue de Chazot in Nice. During this time, he became friends with several other young artists who lived near him: Pierre Bonnard, Paul Gauguin, and Joseph Caro. They spent their free time together talking about art and going to museums. In 1911, Matisse met Frida Kahlo while visiting Mexico City to attend a medical conference. The two men soon became good friends and Frida helped him find his way into the world of public exhibitions. In 1912, he returned to Paris where he showed three more groups of paintings over the next three years.
They staged eight art exhibitions known as the Impressionist Exhibitions between 1874 and 1886. Despite his ongoing disagreements with other members of the group, Degas took the lead in arranging the shows and presented his work in all but one of them. The only exception was the last exhibition, where he was too ill to travel.
Edgar Degas was born on April 23, 1834 in Paris. His father was a wealthy notary public whose clients included the royal family. His mother was from a well-to-do family who owned their own sugar plantation in Louisiana.
He initially wanted to be a painter like his brother Jean-Leonard, but when this failed to bring him success, he switched to sculpture. In 1861, at the age of 26, he entered the prestigious Académie des Beaux-Arts where he studied for three years. During this time he met many artists who would have an impact on his life and career including Paul Cezanne, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Alfred Sisley.
In 1869, he began teaching drawing at the Académie des Beaux-Arts. Two years later, he became director of the school's sculpture class. In 1873, he married Louise Abbini. She was 16 years old and from a wealthy family.