Sharing ideas that inspire movements necessitates the use of media, and silkscreen printing provides a means to make visually attractive visuals. Students and artists alike learnt how screen-printing processes might help them make powerful, vibrant pictures more quickly than other approaches such as painting.
The purpose of silk screening is to create permanent images by pressing ink onto cloth or paper using a squeegee. The word "screen" here refers to the mesh frame on which the image is placed before it is printed. The process is similar to but not exactly like hand-painting, because screens have openings that let paint through but block fabric fibers. Screens are made of metal or plastic wires with holes about 1/4 inch (6 mm) wide. When wet paint contacts the screen, it sticks only to the open areas, leaving the covered areas blank.
People started silk screening in the 1950s when three students at Ohio State University invented a new way to print textiles. They used a film of rubber cement as an adhesive to attach vinyl images to T-shirts. The technique allowed for complex designs and colors that could not be done with traditional methods at the time. Within a few years, other universities began to use this method for their own projects. In 1971, two graduate students from New York University developed a product called Etch A Sketch that used magnets to draw patterns on steel plates and then print those patterns onto T-shirts using rubber cement.
This commercial method made it possible for him to quickly recreate the pictures he took from popular culture. The photographic silkscreen printing method produced a crisp and defined picture, allowing Warhol and his workers to easily mass-produce a vast number of prints. Of all the mediums through which Warhol expressed himself, this is by far the most economical.
In addition to being inexpensive, silkscreens are easy to manipulate. The artist can change colors or add new images over time just by repeating the process. They're also very durable: Many of Warhol's works done in silkscreening are still available today.
Warhol used this technique throughout his career. In fact, he first started working with silkscreens in 1963. He used them to produce portraits that were often based on photographs taken by other people (e.g., Marilyn Monroe).
The best known work done in silkscreening is probably Andy Warhol's Empire State Building series. It began in 1964 and lasted for nearly three years. The artist photographed the same scene from different angles and edited the photos together into one image using photo montage software. This allowed him to create a single composite picture that showed an entire city block in New York City's East Village neighborhood.
Silkscreening, also known as serigraphy, is a complex surface printing stenciling process in which a design is cut out of paper or another thin, sturdy material and then printed by rubbing, rolling, or spraying paint or ink through the cut out regions. The word "silkscreen" comes from the name of a fabric used for printing processes back in the day: silk screening.
The design is transferred to the substrate surface using an exclusive screen print mask. Then the mask is removed from the substrate and the marked-up area is washed away for the next step. This process is repeated until all parts of the design have been applied.
Silkscreen printing is commonly used for advertising and promotional materials such as T-shirts, hats, bags, and posters. It is also used for product packaging and interior decorating. The method is particularly useful for applying large designs to small surfaces since it allows for accurate placement of the design elements.
There are two main types of silkscreen printers: roll-to-roll and sheet-fed.
In a roll-to-roll machine, the screen is mounted on a cylinder that is wrapped with a web of film. As the cylinder turns, the web passes under the print head which applies paint or ink through the clear areas of the screen.