Relief sculpture is classified into three types: (1) low relief (basso-relievo, or bas-relief), in which the sculpture protrudes just little from the backdrop surface; (2) high relief (alto-relievo, or alto-relief), in which the sculpture protrudes at least half or more of its natural circumference from the background, and...
Low relief, also known as bas-relief (basso-relievo), is characterized by a design that projects just slightly from the ground and has little or no undercutting of outlines. In a high relief, or alto-relievo, the figures protrude at least half or more of their natural circumference from the backdrop and may therefore stand out from the background. Artists often create high relief sculptures to make them appear larger than they are in reality; this gives an illusion of depth to the sculpture.
High relief sculptures are usually made from hard materials such as stone or metal. Low relief sculptures are usually made from soft materials such as clay or plaster. The type of material used affects how the sculpture is finished after it is made. Clay can be fired in a kiln to harden its surface while plaster cannot. Metal requires welding or other forms of fabrication before it can be worked into a sculpted form.
The word "bas-relief" comes from French and means "underground or subterranean work". This term was originally used to describe any carving that showed signs of having been done from underneath the finished product. For example, if an artist was working on a statue and wanted to try something new, they would first make a small model of their idea and then carve it out of wood or plastic and display it underground until they were ready to finish the final version of the sculpture.
Bas-relief (pronounced "bah ree*leef") is a sculpting method in which figures and/or other design elements are just barely more apparent than the (generally flat) backdrop. It is a French phrase derived from the Italian basso-relievo ("low relief"). The art of bas-relief was popular in Europe from about 300 B.C. to A.D. 1500.
The word "bas-relief" comes from the French for "baked (relief)". This refers to the process by which some bas-reliefs are created, wherein the figure is baked into a slab of hard stone or metal before being carved out. These days it is also common to see photographs where parts of the image are in deep shadow and others where bright light reflects off of a smooth surface. This type of carving is called high-relief because it goes over the edge of the block rather than just slightly beyond it. High-relief images can be seen in many ancient statues and works of art.
Low-relief images are almost invisible except when they're made of shiny materials like silver or gold. Then they reflect the light right back at you, giving the illusion that there's more image under the surface. Low-relief images are common in tombs and sacred spaces.
The height of the figures' projection or separation from the backdrop is used to classify reliefs. High relief represents an image that stands out from its background.
Bas-relief can be defined as any sculptured representation that projects only slightly from a supporting surface, such as a wall or pedestal. Relief can be divided into two main categories: high relief and low relief. In high relief, the subject matter is completely enclosed by the casting process while in low relief some parts may be visible behind others. When part of the original model remains visible after completion of the sculpture, it is called "carved" relief rather than "sculpted" relief.
Reliefs are often used to depict people and animals because they can be seen from a distance. Reliefs can also show objects beyond what would normally be possible without using your hands (such as the raised lettering on a monument). Relieved sculptures are made by carving away material to expose the raw wood beneath. As you can imagine, this is quite labor-intensive process that requires skill and experience to achieve beautiful results.
In conclusion, reliefs are three-dimensional images created by removing material from a flat surface to create depth and dimensionality.
Sculptors often perceive figurative low relief as an exceptionally challenging art genre. The term comes from Latin rēs < red rock > + elevare meaning "to raise up". In architecture, the word is used for any sculptural decoration that stands out from the wall surface but does not penetrate it.
In ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, bas-relief was one of the only acceptable means of representing a three-dimensional subject. Other methods included casting, modeling in clay, and painting on a flat surface. The bas-relief method required a high level of skill to produce realistic images without using all-over shading or other artificial means to suggest depth. The artist would start with a block of marble or some other hard material, chisel away most of its mass to reveal the image underneath, then polish off any remaining rough edges or holes to create a smooth finish.
In modern sculpture, bas-relief is the process of creating a sculpture that is visible through a plate or panel which bears no resemblance to the finished work. The word "bas-relief" is derived from Latin rēs < red rock > plus erebus < evening star >, meaning "out of the earth."
In sculpture, relief, also known as relievo (from the Italian relievevare, "to elevate"), is any work in which the figures project from a supporting background, generally a plane surface. If the figures are high compared with the depth of the surrounding area, it is called elevated relief. If not, it is called sunken relief.
Elevated and sunken relief are two terms that describe how far above or below the background a figure appears. In general, the higher the figure, the more prominent it is; conversely, figures that are closer to the viewer appear less prominent. Thus, elevation and depression are important factors in determining how interesting or appealing an image will be. In sculpture, elevation is usually achieved by using tall forms against a flat background, while depression is obtained with low forms against a dense background. The term relief is applied to both types of images: those in which the figure is raised up from the background (elevated relief) and those where it is hidden behind another object (understated relief). Reliefs can also include photographs and drawings. The word is derived from Latin rēlicius, "of royal origin," because ancient rulers were often depicted in stone with elevated symbols to show their authority.
In painting, elevation is given to objects that stand out from the background.