The advent of the tin tube for paint (1841) and the portable collapsible easel (both in the mid-nineteenth century) transformed the landscape genre by allowing painters to leave the studio to study and paint their landscapes firsthand. These developments also helped land-scape painting become more popular.
Before this time, artists needed a room in which to work that was separate from other activities. They could be part of a workshop where they would teach others how to paint or they could be in their own studio which they would use to create paintings. Most workshops were not exclusive - anyone with money enough to buy paint and canvas could join them. This allowed young artists to learn from some of the best teachers in Europe and it also meant that they could access valuable advice from older artists who had already established themselves. For example, Vincent van Gogh spent several years in the Netherlands learning from his friend Paul Gauguin before setting up on his own in France.
Landscapes played an important role in many of these workshops because they could be painted at any time of year and indoors when needed. This means that students from all over Europe and the United States could travel to northern Italy, Germany, or the Netherlands and take lessons from the masters. Some famous artists' workshops include those of Caspar David Friedrich in Germany and John Constable in England.
The advent of portable canvases and easels allowed the technique to flourish, notably in France, and the Barbizon style of painting in natural light was extremely prominent in the early 1830s. External hyperlinks
|hide Authority control|
|National libraries||United States|
Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Durer, Fra Bartolomeo, and others produced pure landscape drawings and watercolours around the end of the 15th century, but pure landscape subjects in painting and printmaking were first produced by Albrecht Altdorfer and others of the German Danube School in the 16th century. They are called Landscape with a Woman Weeping because then it was customary for women to wear black when a male friend or relative died.
The term "landscape artist" was not used until much later. Before that time, artists who made landscapes did so as part of another subject, such as a city scene or a view from within the country.
Landscapes have always been important elements in art, but only since the 19th century have they been made by isolated individuals rather than groups. The Romantic movement in art brought about a new interest in nature, and many artists including William Wordsworth, John Constable, Thomas Cole, and Claude Lorrain painted scenes of rural life.
In the 20th century, artists began to use photography as a source of inspiration for their own work. In fact, some photographers have chosen to hide photographs under their prints to show that this is what inspired them.
Today, many artists create landcapes using computer technology. The American painter Jackson Pollock is known for his abstract paintings that include large amounts of dripping paint.
Fountain, arguably the most contentious work of the twentieth century, is the classic "readymade," a commonplace thing transformed into an artwork because the creator determines it is art. Duchamp presented a urinal to the newly formed Society of Independent Artists in 1917. The organization rejected the piece as not being artistic materialization and sold it instead to a museum in Boston. In fact, the museum never displayed the piece because it was allergic to urine.
Even though the museum rejected the work, this did not stop other artists from copying it. Fountain has been replicated many times since its creation in 1917. One of these copies was done by Marcel Duchamp himself who added some notes next to the original readymade. He wrote: "A readymade object is an object without an owner".
Another note read: "The idea for this work came to me while I was sitting on the toilet one day. Why should artists be paid when anyone can do anything?"
Fountain was first exhibited in 1919 at the Philadelphia Art Club. It attracted much attention from the media and critics, some praising it while others condemned it as bad taste or simple vulgarity. During his lifetime, Marcel Duchamp received several offers from people wanting to buy the right to sell his work but he always refused them. He believed that the act of selling his paintings would make them less authentic and valuable objects.
The popularity of watercolour painting in the United Kingdom grew in tandem with the introduction of new commercial painting products. Painters' color men, who sold painting supplies in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, were largely headquartered in London and competed for the attentions of both amateur and professional artists. They introduced many improvements to painting materials, such as transparent watercolours, which allowed for more detail in landscapes and still-lifes than had been possible before their introduction.
In addition to colormen, there were also itinerant sellers of paintings materials in Victorian England. These merchants traveled around the country with their carts selling watercolors, oils, and other painting supplies at fairs, exhibitions, and public events where artists would gather from all over the kingdom. Some merchants only sold paint; others also offered instruction on how to use the materials correctly. The most famous of these painters' merchants was Thomas Girtin, who sold his paintings materials under the name "Girtin's Establishment." He taught drawing and painting at schools in London and Cambridge and had a shop that sold art materials in Winchester. Girtin painted in a style called "English School" which was popular among academic artists in training at the time. His pupils included Edward Burne-Jones, William Morris, and Charles Frederick Worth.
Other merchants sold exclusively oil paintings. These sellers would travel around the country with large carts filled with finished paintings which they would place on display for visitors to see.