Thuluth (Arabic: thuluth, Tulut; Persian: thlth, Sols; Turkish: Sulus, from thuluth "one-third") is a script variation of Islamic calligraphy. The new script replaced Kufic's straight, angular outlines with curved and oblique lines. It was developed by al-Jazari as an improvement on Kufic script and is therefore also called Jazari' script.
Al-Jazari was an 11th-century Arab mathematician, engineer, and writer who lived in Khurasan (present-day Iran). He is regarded as the father of robotics for having invented several automata including a monkey that could speak 40 different words. He also described how to build a mechanical elephant and other animals.
Al-Jazari's work on mathematics, mechanics, optics, and hydraulics has made him one of the most important scientists in history. His books On the Creation of Living Beings and The Book of Knowledge are considered classics in their fields. They contain many details on anatomy and physiology that were not known at the time.
Al-Jazari used simple tools and materials available to anyone in his time zone to create highly sophisticated machines. For example, he used wood and iron rods and balls carved out of one piece of stone for his automata.
The Thirukkural is regarded as one of the most renowned ancient writings in Tamil. It is regarded as a "shared creed," serving as a guide for human values and personal development. Thirukkural has been translated into a number of languages. It is estimated that more than 50 million copies have been printed worldwide.
Thirukkural is considered to be an essential reading for anyone who wishes to learn about the values we should strive for in life. The book contains guidelines on how to achieve success in any field, whether it is business or science. It also teaches us the value of friendship and what it means to live a balanced life.
Thirukkural has had a tremendous impact on society, especially during times of distress or hardship. Even today, it serves as a source of inspiration for many people all over the world.
Here are some of the characteristics of Thirukkural:
• The first written work in the modern language of Tamil.
• It is believed to have been written by someone named Kuralarjuna who lived around the same time as Homer. He is also regarded as one of the authors of the Vedas.
• The work covers the topics of morality, philosophy, and religion. It also includes discussions on science, mathematics, and technology.
Diwani is a calligraphic variant of Arabic script, a cursive form that originated during the rule of the early Ottoman Turks (16th–early 17th centuries). It was known as the Diwani script because it was employed in the Ottoman diwan and was one of the Sultan's palace's secrets. The name "Diwani" came to be applied to all forms of Arabic writing similar to it.
In modern times, Diwani has become a generic term for any style of handwriting used in communication with the public, such as letters, bills, and receipts. This includes formal documents written in standard Arabic as well as informal texts composed in the local language. It can also refer to handwritten notes taken during lectures or classes.
Diwani has been adopted as the script form for some musical instruments. For example, the Diwani script is used to write the names of instruments played in jazz bands. It is also used to write the names of instruments played in Arab music ensembles such as oud, violin, tar, and qanun.
Diwani has been used to write songs by Egyptian singers such as Amr Diab, Hisham Abdel-Raouf, and El Ghazzaly. These songs are then performed by musicians from Egypt's famous Cairo Symphony Orchestra.
Abdel-Wahid Abdallah was a prominent figure in the development of Diwani script.
Thiruvathira, also known as Thiruvathirai or Arudhra Darisanam, is a Hindu festival observed in Kerala and Tamil Nadu in India. Thiruvathirai (Arudhra) means "holy huge wave" in Tamil. Thiruvathira has a relationship with the moon. The evening of the thirteenth day of the Indian lunar month corresponds to the peak of the full moon, which is why it is called Thiruvathira. The next morning at dawn, when the moon has disappeared, people worship it by placing flowers at its path at midnight.
The festival begins on the 13th night of the waning crescent moon and ends on the 14th night. It is celebrated throughout India and in countries where Indians have migrated. Thiruvathira is one of the important festivals for Hindus; it marks the beginning of the new year according to the Hindu calendar.
People celebrate this festival by praying for their loved ones, giving gifts, and eating festive foods such as idlis (steamed rice cakes), uttapams (Indian pancakes made with lentil flour), and avial (a kind of fruit salad).
Thiruvathira is especially significant for women because it is believed that the moon determines their moods for the coming month. If there is a thirteenth day night, then they will be sad and depressed; if not, then they will be happy and smile.