If a photograph is too black, it has been underexposed; if it is too bright, it has been overexposed. Some parts might be underexposed or overexposed if they are not the primary focus of the image. The shutter speed of a camera is the amount of time the shutter is open to let light enter the picture sensor. So, faster shutter speeds allow more light into the camera and produce less-dark photographs, while slower shutter speeds allow less light into the camera and produce darker photographs.
The word "underexposure" means to use a lower limit for exposure than is necessary. In other words, you can say that an image is underexposed if some areas are too dark. An image is said to be overexposed when areas that should be bright are instead completely white. If your photo is underexposed but not completely black, then there are several things you can do to improve it. The first thing you need to do is to expose correctly from start to finish. Don't wait until after you take the picture to adjust the exposure. Do it during shooting so you get the best result possible.
There are two ways to adjust the exposure of a photo: with the camera's built-in controls and with external lighting tools like gels and reflectors. With built-in controls, you have three options: autoexposure, manual exposure, and scene modes.
If you notice that your images are too dark or too bright, this is due to improper exposure. The quantity of light that enters your camera and forms the image on the image sensor is referred to as exposure. Your camera has a setting called Exposure Mode which determines how much light is let into the camera during an exposure.
To correct for under- or overexposure, you need to adjust the ISO speed (which controls the sensitivity of the film or digital camera's sensors) and/or f-stop (the aperture setting). As long as you're not moving either the subject or the camera, these two settings will affect all of your photographs equally. For example, if you set your camera to a low ISO speed and large f-stop number, then all of your pictures will be underexposed. If you set it to a high ISO speed and small f-stop, all of your pictures will be overexposed.
Here are some other things to consider when taking photographs:
The lighting in your scene will determine how you need to adjust your ISO speed and f-stop settings. If there's not enough light, you'll need to increase both numbers. If there's too much light, you can decrease both numbers.
Don't use a flash unless you must.
It makes no difference whether the photo is in color or black and white.
Definition of Overexposure Overexposure occurs when a picture seems brighter than it should be or brighter than the neutral exposure. When too much light strikes the camera's sensor, an incredibly bright image is produced that is now overexposed. The exposure is controlled by two settings: aperture and shutter speed. If you don't adjust these values, your photo will be underexposed or exposed correctly but with no detail in shadows or highlights.
Generally, photos are not completely white or black. They have a range of brightness levels across their sensors. This allows for some detail in shadow areas and highlight regions to be visible. However, if there is too much contrast between dark and light areas, then this can lead to a "clipped" image where only the brightest or darkest parts of the scene are seen. This can happen if you use a fast shutter speed to freeze motion but the lighting remains the same throughout the shot.
Overexposed images are commonly seen in photographs taken with small cameras where there is simply not enough room on the sensor to record all the information from a scene. With modern cameras, this problem can be avoided by using a large aperture (wide-open hole) in order to let in more light. But if there is still a problem with exposure, then the only solution is to increase the time it takes for the shutter to open and close so more light gets through.
In general, photos are not completely white or black.