A 2-D depiction of an item in a view that reveals just one side at a time is referred to as a "orthographic drawing." The majority of orthographic drawings are multi-drawing sets that portray each side, top, and bottom view. House floor plans are an example of an orthographic drawing. Each room is drawn separately from the others and the entire house is drawn only once.
Often times, designers will choose to draw just the main features of an object using orthographic views to make their job easier or more efficient. For example, an interior designer might want to create an initial layout of a room before starting with its decor. By drawing the furniture first and then adding color and design elements, she can develop a concept more quickly and accurately. Or, a painter might need to know which parts of a wall are visible so they can decide where to put their colors.
The key aspect of any good orthographic drawing is that it shows everything exactly as it would appear if you were looking at the subject from a perpendicular angle. Therefore, the viewer must mentally rotate the image to understand its full meaning. Unfortunately, this important step is often neglected in practice, causing serious problems for the reader when trying to interpret the image.
For example, an orthographic drawing of a chair cannot be used by itself to determine its actual size because there's no way to tell how far away it is from the viewer.
An orthographic projection is a method of sketching a three-dimensional object from several angles. A front, side, and plan view are often depicted so that the person viewing the picture can see all of the critical aspects. Orthographic drawings are important, especially when a design has progressed to the point where it is virtually ready for manufacturing. They provide a clear picture of how to construct or use an idea before building or using it.
Orthographic projections were first used by Albrecht Dürer in his 1528 book De Proprietatibus Rerum. He published two sets of drawings: one set was based on real objects (mainly animals) while the other was imaginary. Although Dürer did not call them "orthographic" drawings, he did explain how he drew each scene: "First, I draw everything at an angle of 45 degrees to the ground, then I join all the lines together into one piece." This description sounds like what we would now call an orthographic projection.
Dürer's books had a great influence on European artists and architects, particularly those working in Italy. As a result, many new designs and inventions were presented in artistic forms rather than written descriptions only. For example, Leonardo da Vinci designed many instruments and machines that have been used in modern life but they have never been found because their ideas were too advanced for their time. Artists helped people understand these concepts by depicting them in beautiful pictures.
An orthographic projection drawing typically includes three views: a front view, a top view, and a side view. These three views should be accurate representations of how the subject will appear when constructed. They provide a complete picture of the construction.
In addition to these three views, some drawings may include a fourth view: a rear view.
The front view is what you see when you look at the building face-on. It shows the entire building, including any decorations or additions. The drawing must include clear details of all parts of the building's exterior, such as doors, windows, and other openings. The drawing should also show the interior structure of the building, including walls, floors, and other features. The scale used on the front view should be large enough so that you can tell where one room ends and another begins.
The top view is a horizontal section through the middle of the building, showing its internal structures. Again, it should include clear details of all parts of the building's exterior and interior. The scale used on the top view should be large enough so that you can tell where one floor ends and another begins.
The side view is a vertical section through the middle of the building, showing its internal structures.