Lithography is a method of planographic printmaking in which a pattern is drawn onto a flat stone (or prepared metal plate, generally zinc or aluminum) and adhered by a chemical reaction. The original drawing then becomes the template for making many copies of it at once. The term "litho" means "stone" in Greek.
In its most common form, lithography involves applying ink using oil-based paints as masks. When these films are exposed to light they harden into positive images that prevent ink from being absorbed into the surface below. Various other methods have also been used including burning the image into the rock with acid-soaked brushes, spraying water-based paints onto the rock's surface, and even wrapping paper strips around the edge of the stone to create a stencil.
The first known use of this printing technique was in 1725 when Jean Baptiste Tavernier published an album of lithographs he had made in China. These were probably done on wood blocks but their accuracy and quality suggests that lithography must have been available at the time too. In fact, French artist Jacques-Louis David used this method to print some of his own drawings in 1803.
Lithography has several advantages over other printmaking techniques. It is easy to learn and requires only basic tools.
Lithography (from the Ancient Greek lithos, lithos'stone,' and graphein, graphein 'to write') is a printing technology that was initially based on the immiscibility of oil and water. Originally, an image was drawn with oil, lard, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, flat lithographic limestone plate. The plate was then washed over with ink, which only adhered to un-washed areas of the plate. The result was a print that could be used many times by simply washing off the oily inks.
Lithographic stones are very sensitive to light and heat, so they should not be exposed to sunlight or placed near an open fire. They should also be kept out of reach of children. Lithographic stones should be cleaned with a soft brush or piece of cloth after use, but otherwise should be left alone.
People usually think of lithographs as being images printed from lithographic plates made from stone when what they are actually referring to is an intaglio print, which is printed from a matrix containing indentations instead. Although both types of prints use the term "lithograph", they differ significantly in how they are produced.
In conclusion, a litho stone is a type of tool used for creating lithographic prints.
The printing is done on a smooth-surfaced stone (lithographic limestone) or metal plate. The image pattern is transferred from the plate to an object by applying pressure with a rubber roller. The original concept was developed by Johann Heinrich Rottler around 1798. He called his method "photolithography".
Photolithography is the art of producing patterns in thin films of material using light. Lithography has two main forms: contact and non-contact. In contact lithography, the mask and substrate are in close proximity; any changes made to the mask transfer directly to the substrate. In general, contact masks are used for small features (<50 microns), while non-contact masks are used for larger features or multiple exposures. Masks can also be divided into opaque and transparent types. Opaque masks contain areas of clear plastic film over which intricate patterns have been etched. Transparent masks use reflective materials instead. They reflect light where there are no metals, so dark regions are left on the photo resist.
Lithography is commonly used for creating circuit boards and other micro-scale devices. When applied to macro-scale engineering projects, it is known as large-scale integrated (LSI) technology.
Lithography is defined as a process of printing from a flat surface in which unwanted ink is turned away from the surface, often by grease. Printing a phrase on a stone using grease to resist unwelcome ink is an example of lithography. Early forms of lithographic printing used engraved plates and now modern versions use lasers or ink-jet printers.
Lithography has been used for many centuries in various forms all over the world. It is thought that the first true lithographer was Xu Wei in China during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220). He made stones and bricks with texts and images that could be read even after they were dry.
In Europe, lithography began to replace copperplate engraving around 1770. The first commercial print shop in London opened its doors in 1841. Today, most photographs and printed maps are still produced using this method.
Yes, there are several other methods used for communication including flags, smoke signals, and electricity. But these methods are mostly used when you want to get the message out quickly or if you need something more sophisticated than a rock can provide.