Dye Varieties Textile dyes include acid dyes, which are primarily used to dye wool, silk, and nylon, as well as direct or substantive dyes, which have a high affinity for cellulose fibers (see table). To give mordant dyes an affinity for the object being colored, chemical compounds such as salts must be added. The most common mordants are salt of copper, alum, tartaric acid, and iron.
The textile industry uses many different types of dyes. Acid dyes are made from plants or minerals that contain substances that will combine with other substances to create colors. These dyes are usually fast-drying colors that don't last long. Direct dyes are derived from natural sources or synthetic sources and they are not extracted with acids. They can be any color and they dry very slowly. Substantive dyes are made from natural sources or synthetic sources and they bind to the fiber permanently if no washings are done.
Some examples of acid dyes are Carmine, Cochineal, Turmeric, and Methyl Green. Examples of direct dyes are Indigo, Azo Yellow, and Quinoline Yellow. Examples of substantive dyes are Aniline Blue, Basic Red 9, and Patent Blue V.
Acid dyes are generally used on light colors and printed images because they will not cover dark colors well.
Fabric dyes come in a variety of varieties that are utilized in the textile industry. Natural dyes and synthetic dyes, on the other hand, are the two most common forms of dyes.
Natural dyes are derived from plants or animals. They include carmine, cochineal, indigo, madder, and turmeric. While natural dyes are popular with consumers because they are thought to be more environmentally friendly than synthetic dyes, they can be difficult and expensive to use due to variations in color between batches and substances that block their absorption into the fiber. In addition, some natural dyes may not fade out completely after washing.
Synthetic dyes are produced in a laboratory and have little to no relation to any substance found in nature. They include acid dyes, basic dyes, direct dyes, reactive dyes, and vat dyes. Acid dyes are colored by reacting with molecules containing sulfhydryl groups (-SH), such as those present in wool fibers. Basic dyes are colored by reacting with molecules containing amino groups (-NH2), such as those present in silk fibers. Direct dyes are colored by reacting with molecules containing quinone or hydroquinone groups (-C=O or -OH).
Fiber reactive dyes are most effective on cellulose plant fibers such as cotton, linen, hemp, bamboo, and viscose, as well as silk. Mordants are not necessary when employing fiber-reactive dyes to "fix" the color. Fiber-reactive dyes utilize less water, salt, and heavy metals than traditional fabric dyes. They're also less likely to run or bleed through clothing.
Fiber-non-reactive dyes are best used with low-temperature dry-cleaning processes as they won't set easily once washed. These dyes require a mordant to "fix" the color. While fiber-non-reactive dyes are more environmentally friendly than conventional dyes, they tend to be less bright colors and can potentially cause allergic reactions for some people.
White vinegar is a natural alternative to bleach that can be used in place of fabric softeners. It helps remove stains from fabrics without leaving a smell behind. Simply mix one part white vinegar with two parts hot water and let sit for at least 30 minutes before washing as a pretreatment.
There are several types of dyes that are considered green because they're derived from natural sources or have reduced impacts during production. There are pigment dyes which are made from minerals such as iron ore, zinc, and copper; fruit and vegetable juices; and wood products. Organic pigment dyes are also available but are limited in color range due to limitations placed upon them by law.
Different dyes are compatible with various materials. Special wool dye or acid dye, for example, is the best dye for wool (protein/animal) fibers. (It sounds terrifying, but the "acid" is only white vinegar used to help set the colour.) Match your yarn's content to the sort of dye. For example, don't try to dye alpaca with a basic dye like madder unless you want it to turn all sorts of ugly colors.
There are also many color-safe dyes that will work well with synthetic fibers (cotton, nylon). These dyes are often called "disperse dyes", which means they're designed to be mixed with other colors to create new shades. They come in powder form and need to be dissolved in an alcohol solvent before using.
The most important thing is that you find out what type of fiber your yarn is made from and buy the right dye for it. As long as you follow the instructions carefully, you shouldn't have any problems.
Organic textile dye classification Until 1856, natural textile dyes were primarily utilized in textile coloring, using colors produced from vegetable and animal resources. In 1856, synthetic dyes were developed. These dyes are still being manufactured today for use in clothing and other products as well as for research purposes.
Organic dyeing has many advantages over conventional dyeing methods. Organic dyes are natural products that contain colorants derived from plants or animals. They tend to be more permanent than their conventional counterparts, with the ability to resist light, washing, and dry cleaning. Also, there is less risk of toxic substances being released into the environment when using organic dyes.
In addition to having better environmental benefits, organic dyes are considered safer for humans to work with. There have been no known cases of cancer caused by working with organic dyes, while this is not true of its conventional counterpart.
There are several types of organic dyes: primary and secondary aromatic amines, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phlobaphenes, and polycyclic compounds. Each type of dye has different properties such as pH tolerance, temperature stability, and water-solubility.
Primary aromatic amines are organic dyes that are derived from coal or petroleum.