Post-nominal letters, also known as post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, or designatory letters, are letters that are added after a person's name to indicate that the person holds a position, academic degree, accreditation, office, military decoration, or honor, or is a member of a religious institute or fraternity. The use of post-nominal letters within academia dates back at least to 1279 when Edward II granted a license to print books in London.
In the English and Welsh systems, there is no requirement for people to use post-nominal letters; however, many do so voluntarily. In the American system, by contrast, all officers of institutions of higher education are required by law to use their surnames as post-nominal letters. Officers who do not comply may be subject to disciplinary action.
Within science, artists' names are often followed by an abbreviation of the scientific institution where they are employed.
Post-nominal initials or titles are letters added after a person's name to signify that the person holds a certain job, qualification, accreditation, office, or honor. Post-nominal letters should be arranged as follows: Civil distinctions "Military citations." Nominals (last names) are used except for commanders in the armed forces who are given grades instead.
For example, if you were named John Arthur Jones, then your post-nominal letters would look like this: Jones, J. A.
If you were awarded a military medal, that would be listed first with its category after it. If you received multiple medals, list them in alphabetical order by the last name of the organization that issued the awards. In this case, it would be Army Medal, Navy Medal, Air Force Medal.
Your title or office would go at the end of your name. If you were called "Mr. Jones", then your post-nominal letters would look like this: Jones, J. A. ("Mr.")
If you were a member of the Senate, your post-nominal letters would look like this: Smith, R. B. (Senator)
All post-nominal letters should be written in sentence case. Use punctuation and capitalization as necessary.
Post-nominal letters are letters that come after a name. They may be obtained for a variety of achievements. Academic education, accreditation, certification, distinction, and/or recognition can all result in a letter. In many cases, only one post-nominal letter is used for identification. However, some groups use multiple post-nominals to distinguish members of the group.
The post-nominal letters often spell out an achievement or award received by the person with the name. These letters are usually placed after the person's name. For example, Elizabeth "Libby" Hannah received the Congressional Gold Medal in 2015. The medal was given to her by Congress and it has the word "Gold" followed by the year she was honored (2015). The letters "CG" stand for Congressional Gold.
Another example is Nancy Reagan, who became "First Lady" of the United States when her husband was elected president in 1980. She had previously been actress Nancy Davis before marrying President Ronald Reagan. They have two children together - Michael Jr and Chastity.
Nancy's parents were Francis Nancy Davis (her birth name) and John H. F. Smith Jr. They married on April 24, 1912, in Los Angeles, California. Her father was born in Illinois but grew up in Nevada where his family owned land. His parents were immigrants from Germany.
The letters following your name, often known as appellations and postnominals, are acronyms of your credentials. Anyone with a degree can put them after their name. These labels are useful when ordering items in a bookstore or library. They allow others to identify you more easily.
There are two types of letters used after names: academic degrees and professional licenses. Only use these letters after your name if you have an award or certificate to show for your work.
Academic degrees are used to identify professors, instructors, coaches, mentors, and other people who contribute to an educational institution. Each degree has its own specific use and may be combined with other letters to indicate multiple degrees. The most common academic degrees are bachelor's, master's, and doctoral.
Professional licenses are required to practice certain occupations. Doctors must complete medical school and then go through residency training before they can license their skills. Lawyers must pass a bar exam before they can practice law. Other professionals including teachers, nurses, and counselors need to be licensed by their states to provide safe services for children and families.
Degrees and licenses should not be used as self-promotional tools. If you see someone using their degrees or licenses as such, it can be considered plagiarism.
In the United States, post-nominal letters are typically listed in the following order:
When a professional has obtained more than one set of post-nominal letters, each set of letters should be displayed after his or her name. This is done in decreasing sequence, starting with the most prestigious letters (those closest to the name), then a comma, the next group of letters, and so on. So the writer would be called Charles E. May, LLD.
The practice of displaying letters after one's name was first made mandatory for lawyers by the American Bar Association in 1878. Prior to this date, members of the bar were allowed to choose whether they wanted their names to be preceded by letters indicating their profession.
Today, those who have earned their degrees from an American university may use the initials LL.M. , which means "lawful master" or "doctrine of laws M.I.M." for those who hold both an LL.M. And an M.I.M. degree. Some universities may also use three sets of initials for their graduates: A.B., A.S., and S.J.D.
Those who have earned doctoral degrees (PhDs) are usually called by their title followed by "Dr." or "Professor." For example, Dr. Jane Smith would be used as opposed to John Doe.
Professors can also be called by their last name and the word "Doctor" if they have earned their PhDs.
While all members are granted the opportunity to use the post-nominal letters OM and wear the Order of Merit emblem, the precedence of the Order of Merit, among other awards, varies by country.... The highest-ranking member of the Order of Merit is called the Oma (or Omah).
In general, lowercase the name or level of the degree, and in some situations, use the possessive (rather than plural) form. When mentioning a degree achieved by a person, spell out and lowercase the name of the degree on the first mention; shorten it after that. For example, if calling him "Dr. Jones" once would be sufficient to identify him by his title, then using his full name repeatedly would be unnecessary and could cause confusion.
Degrees are usually written as words with capital letters, although some institutions use small capitals or a different method for writing their degrees. Your university may specify how your degree should be written. If it does not, here are some examples of commonly used formats:
Bachelor of Arts (BA): A degree awarded to students who have completed several courses of study in various disciplines. The word "bachelor" is spelled out and uses lowercase letters.
Master of Science (MS): A scientific degree awarded to individuals who have completed at least 30 hours of course work related to science. The word "master" is spelled out and uses lowercase letters.
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD): A research degree awarded to individuals who have completed a substantial amount of research and produced a dissertation or other formal document required for graduation. The word "doctor" is spelled out and uses lowercase letters.