Pictorial depth (also known as spatial recession) is a type of composition in which the three-dimensional environment is depicted on a flat surface, or picture plane. The region beyond the image plane is referred to as the picture space, and it is traditionally divided into three zones: foreground, middle ground, and backdrop. These terms come from 19th-century painting techniques where objects closer to the viewer were painted first, then more distant ones.
In photography, the picture plane is the surface onto which the image is recorded. Anything beyond this surface is considered part of the background and not seen by the viewer. An important factor in photographic composition is determining what goes into the foreground, middle ground, and background of the image. This affects how much detail, subject matter, and atmosphere can be included.
The concept of pictorial depth was popularized by the German painterPaul Cézanne who published an essay on color theory in 1866. In it he introduced the idea that colors near the viewer appear brighter than those far away. He also suggested that if you wanted to paint a scene accurately, you should place all the important elements within the image plane. This would give the appearance of reality to his paintings.
Cézanne's ideas began to be adopted by other artists, most notably the French photographer Louis Daguerre. In 1874, Daguerre published an article in which he described three distinct areas in his images: foreground, middle ground, and background.
Any surface area in space is referred to as a "plane." The "picture plane" in two-dimensional art is the flat surface on which the image is made, such as paper, canvas, or wood. Three-dimensional images can be portrayed on a flat picture plane by employing aesthetic elements to suggest depth and volume. Two-dimensional artists often use lines and shapes to create the illusion of dimensionality.
Lines can be straight or curvy, but they must be visible to the eye in order to represent a plane. A line that goes from the picture's edge into the image may seem like it belongs there, but if it isn't visible then it doesn't exist in the painting and cannot contribute to creating the illusion of three dimensions. A line that runs across the middle of the image is called a "midline." It too should be visible to help the viewer understand how the image fits into three dimensions.
Shapes are used in addition to lines to create the illusion of dimensionality. An object that is closer to the viewer appears larger than one that is farther away. This is because our eyes are positioned relative to the foreground scene, not the background. By using different shapes to indicate different distances from the viewer, an artist can help the eye follow the story being told in the image.
In conclusion, descriptions of planes in art involve lines and shapes that fill the picture plane. These elements together help the viewer understand how the image fits into three dimensions.
When an artist produces a sense of space within a painting, the picture plane serves as a clear barrier between the fictive internal space and the real space outside, in which the observer is positioned. The artist can use various techniques to create the illusion that parts of the scene beyond the picture plane are visible. These include foreshortening, perspective, and atmospheric effects.
The picture plane is also called the viewing plane because it determines what part of the scene is visible from where the viewer stands. An invisible wall at the back of the painting stops any further objects from appearing in the image, thereby creating a frame for the artwork.
In photography, too, the viewing plane is the surface on which the photo is viewed. This may be a piece of glass or plastic, for example. Light rays coming from different directions reach the eye after passing through different amounts of atmosphere, so photos taken at different times of day or from different locations will look differently even though they were taken using optical lenses. Also, photographs show three-dimensional (3D) shapes that cannot be seen with the naked eye; for example, an orange sitting on a table appears flattened on one side when photographed from the front but has a more realistic shape when photographed from the side.
Photographs are used not only to record scenes but also as illustrations for books, magazines, and newspapers.
A picture plane is an image plane placed between the "eye point" (or oculus) and the item being viewed in painting, photography, graphical perspective, and descriptive geometry. It is normally coextensive with the material surface of the work. A picture plane can also be defined as any flat surface upon which a photograph can be mounted. The word "plane" here does not imply that the surface is completely flat; it may have curves or shapes that give it form.
A picture plane should not be confused with a view plane, which is used by a camera to record an image. They are different because a picture plane is an object located within the scene being photographed, while a view plane is an imaginary horizontal surface placed below the lens of the camera at its focal length. There is no actual requirement for a picture to be taken from directly above or below its subject, but it must be done to accurately portray the three-dimensional nature of objects in space.
For example, if a photographer wants to create the effect of heightening the sense of depth in an image, she could do so by placing objects closer together as they get higher in the photo. Or, if she wanted to make an image appear wider, she could place it closer to the viewer's eye point without actually moving the camera.
In a perspective drawing, the horizontal plane of projection. All lines drawn below this plane will appear to converge on it. The word "ground" is used instead of "plane" when referring to the base upon which all other drawings are constructed. Thus, the term "ground plan" is used to describe the overall layout of a building or complex.
The phrase "as the crow flies" comes from mapmaking, where the shortest distance between two points is calculated by flying a bird (crow) from one point to another and back again. On a map, the shortest route between two places is called a crow flight. This is because crows don't fly near roads or towns, so the mapmaker needs to indicate these routes with straight lines to keep them clear of other features. These straight lines are known as crow flights.
Crow flights can be useful for showing routes that avoid obstacles such as lakes or mountains. However, they may also hide problems that could otherwise be seen from the road. For example, a crow flight between two buildings might not connect them if there was no room inside the line. They would have to be connected by walking along the outside of the buildings.