Traditional intaglio methods include engraving, etching, drypoint, aquatint, and mezzotint. Each generates prints with its own particular appearance and feel, and many prints are made by combining two or more of these methods. Modern techniques include lithography, serigraphy, and digital intaglio.
Intaglio is an engraved printing method where the inked surface of the plate meets the paper with only certain areas allowing ink to transfer. The non-printing areas are called "resin" and they are used as a protective coating for the steel plate. When the plate is put into the press operator can choose how much resin is left on the plate and therefore control the print density.
The intaglio print process includes several steps that must be done with care and attention to detail. First, the plate needs to be prepared by removing any residual resin from around the perimeter of the plate using a resin removal tool. Next, the intaglio artist must select the location where each letter will be printed and use a sharp needle to scratch out the negative shape onto the plate. Finally, the plate goes into the press and multiple sheets of paper are printed one over another with enough pressure to transfer the ink from one sheet to the next.
Engraving, etching, drypoint, aquatint, and mezzotint are examples of intaglio techniques (q. v.). Intaglio printing differs from relief printing in that the ink is applied underneath the surface of the plate. In contrast, with relief printing the image is raised above the surface of the plate.
Etching and engraving are the two kinds of intaglio printing. In etching, as the name suggests, the image is etched into a metal plate using chemicals. This process can produce very detailed images with fine lines and sharp corners. Etched plates are popular for posters and decorative items because of their unique appearance.
Engraved plates use an acid to remove parts of the metal surface to expose new metal underneath, creating negative spaces or pits that print with ink. Engraved plates are used for technical drawings and documents where detail matter most. They tend to be less expensive than etchings but aren't suitable for all images.
Intaglio printers use these methods to create designs on copper, zinc, or stainless steel plates. They require special inks that contain water as a solvent rather than oil or alcohol. The heat from the press melts the ink into the surface of the plate, leaving clear text or images when it's done printing.
This type of printing is expensive because each plate has its own design which must be created by a professional artist/designer first.
Distinguish between the two intaglio processes: etching and engraving. Etching is a time-consuming procedure that involves creating a ground, etching lines into a metal plate, and transferring an image. The lines in engraving are carved directly into the metal plate with a burin. This process does not involve building up layers like etching, so it can produce more detailed images.
Etching was developed by Albrecht Dürer in Germany in the early 16th century. It is used to create prints from copper plates. Engraving was invented much later by Johannes Gutenberg in Europe. He engraved characters onto thin sheets of metal using a method similar to that of etching.
So, etching is an old technique used to print images while engraving is a new technique used to type text. Both methods use tools to carve designs into the surface of materials. In fact, many types of printing including lithography and rotogravure also involve the etching process!
Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages. Etching can produce very detailed images but it's difficult to go over large areas this way. With engraving you can print larger images but the quality is limited because the details get smaller as you print at larger sizes. Technology has made it possible to combine both techniques. For example, a lithographic press will use the etch-engrave process to print magazines.
The pattern is scratched, sliced, or etched into the printing surface or plate, which can be made of copper, zinc, aluminum, magnesium, plastic, or even coated paper. As the name suggests, an intaglio print uses a tool called a intaglio etching needle to create the image.
Intaglio prints are known for their deep, sharp images with a high degree of detail. Because they use less ink than other methods, intaglio prints tend to be more environmentally friendly than others. However, because the design is carved into the plate, intaglio prints are more difficult to change than other methods. If you want to update an existing image or create a new one, you will need to order a new plate. This process can be time-consuming so it's important to choose your subjects carefully before starting work.
The intaglio method was developed in Europe during the 15th century. It first appeared in Italy and later spread to the rest of Europe. Today, it remains popular in countries such as Germany, France, and Switzerland where it is used primarily for commercial printing.
Intaglio prints look different from country to country due to differences in language and style. For example, intaglio prints from Europe often have smooth, polished surfaces while those from America usually have textured finishes.
A printing technique that involves incising lines into the surface of a plate. Western painters used the intaglio method by cutting and inking metal plates. Modern artists use plastic or wood instead.
Intaglio prints are characterized by their deep, etched detail and smooth surface. The word "intaglio" comes from Latin meaning "incised." Etched details were once produced by hand using a sharp tool called a burin. Today, these details are computer controlled from flat images sent to printers who then apply them with inkjet technology or laser beams.
Prints made with this method look like they came from a silver-plate photograph. This is because the depth of the etching transfers well to paper or canvas. It's best known for its use by Renaissance artists such as Raphael and Michelangelo but it was also popular among American Impressionists such as Mary Cassatt and John Singer Sargent.
The term "intaglio" is sometimes used interchangeably with "relief," which describes a similar process where the image is raised above the surface. However, an intaglio print will usually contain more detail than a relief print of equal size because the etching process removes material from the plate to create hollows or spaces that would otherwise be solid rock if printed from a relief map.
Engraving Engraving is the most traditional and widely used intaglio method. A burin or graver is used to carve lines into a metal plate. The plate is inked when the process of incising lines is completed. January 17th, 1399 APOLLONIUS PORTRAGHESE created his first engraved plate.
The image above was carved into the surface of a copper plate with a burin (a type of tool) by Apollonius Portus who lived in Greece around January 17th, 1399. This plate was used as an exchange of money between India and Europe at that time. Modern currencies are copies or adaptations of this original design.
Intaglio printing uses incisions into the plate to create images. It is a difficult technique and requires special tools. The first printed book using this method was produced in 1471.
This image was carved into the surface of a wood block with a chisel and mallet by Hans Sebald Barthelmy who lived in Germany in February 1471. This print represents John the Baptist preaching to the birds on a branch of a tree.
The intaglio printing technique was later adapted for use with paper and other materials. This form of print making is still used today.
This image was drawn by William Blake and it is one of his most famous poems.