Key Animation (Yuan Hua, genga): These artists sketch the important points in the animation, essentially defining the motion without really finishing the cut. The anime business is notorious for giving these individual artists a lot of freedom to express themselves. Sometimes they do this by drawing all sorts of weird things and having them approved by higher-ups before being used.
The most common form of key animation is called "genga". This term comes from Japanese manga and refers to rough drawings done quickly in ink or pencil that serve as guides for later animation steps.
In order to make sure that characters' actions look natural when moving from frame to frame, many animators will also draw "key frames" - detailed drawings that show what specific body parts should be doing at certain moments during the cut.
These key frames are usually drawn in black and white using a thin pen called a "penciler", since lines can be reversed easily on paper with only black and white values. The artist then gives these drawings to a inker who will fill in the colors before printing out the scene photos required for animation.
Since everything except for the key frames is drawn in gray scale, the inker has a lot of leeway in how he or she interprets what the penciler has drawn.
Anime is nearly entirely hand-drawn. Hand-drawn animation requires ability and expertise to make rapidly. They create all of the individual drawings after the top-tier directors create the storyboards and the middle-tier "key animators" sketch the critical frames in each scene. Then the inbetweeners finish up the rest of the drawings, making sure there are no errors or omissions. Finally, the last drawfers color the images.
When you watch an episode of anime you're usually watching one full movie. These days most episodes are about 20 minutes long. Back in the day, movies were much longer. Some still are, like Dragon Ball Z which can run for hours! But most are not. When you see a movie with characters dancing or singing it's probably because the director wanted to show off some special effects. No one pays attention to what happens on screen during these scenes because it's easy to miss something important.
The reason why anime is so expensive to produce is that it takes a lot of time to draw everything by hand. A single episode of 30 minutes might have 2000 drawings alone. And those are just the major scenes! You also need voice actors for every character, music, sound effects, etc. It takes a huge team of people to make an anime even though most people think it's done by one person. And unlike Hollywood movies which are mostly computer-generated imagery (CGI), most anime is actually drawn by hand.
Animes are various types of "animation" that are typically based on Japanese manga and produced by Japanese "animation" studios. There are three main types of anime: action, fantasy, and science fiction.
Action anime feature stories about ordinary people who face off against powerful enemies in spectacular battles. These stories usually involve a group of heroes with different skills who work together to fight off their enemies. The characters in action anime tend to be strong willed and brave, which makes them suitable for children and teenagers of all ages.
Fantasy anime tell stories about great wars, magic, monsters, and treasures that take place in other worlds. They often feature groups of heroes that travel across these worlds seeking out danger and adventure. The characters in fantasy anime tend to be more passive, but they still have a role to play. For example, some characters may enjoy fighting but others might prefer using their brains instead.
Science fiction anime tell stories about humans in search of new planets to live on, or who travel through space aboard large ships. They often feature groups of heroes with different abilities who must work together to save the world or any other object that can be thought up by the writers. Science fiction anime are usually set in distant futures where human technology has advanced beyond our own.