Monarch Gramophone and Typewriter Company, 1905, with a painted tin horn. However, while the No. 2 featured a brass horn, the business rapidly discovered that brass was not the finest material for manufacturing horns; painted tinplate or, best of all, wood produced a greater sound quality. Thus, the first wooden gramophones were also sold with tin horns.
When Charles Frederick Worth invented the phonograph in 1877, it wasn't until many years later that anyone thought to put them on wheels. The idea of using cylinders as a recording medium didn't come about until the early 1900s, when Émile Berliner developed his "cylinder phonograph" design. In 1903, Thomas Edison improved upon this design by incorporating the turntable into his own version of the phonograph. This enabled him to sell recorded music to consumers who could then play their purchases on the new gramophone machines.
Gramophone horns are simply tubes with an open end and a closed other. They're usually made of metal (usually aluminum) but also wood, now rarely used due to its poor sound quality compared to metal. The diameter of the tube is generally between 40 and 60 mm, although larger sizes have been manufactured (up to 100 mm) for use as speakers in large public address systems. Smaller sizes are often used as trumpets or trombones.
Gramophone or Phonograph History You've undoubtedly seen a gramophone, which is a record player with a horn on the side. You know what it is even if you've never seen one up up and personal. They were the first devices to play back music and other types of sound. The gramophone was invented in 1877 by Oskar von Riesemann, a German engineer. He based his device on the phonograph, an idea that had been published a few years before. The gramophone sold well but it wasn't the success von Riesemann had hoped for. So he modified his design several times until about 1900, when he created something we now call the "decca gramophone." This new model included many improvements such as a spindle that held the tape instead of a drum, so it could be used with any type of recording. About this same time, another manufacturer named Victor introduced their own version of the gramophone called the "dynamo gramophone." This instrument used a motor instead of hand-cranked power like the decca gramophone. In 1905, Columbia began selling a machine that was similar to the decca gramophone but used diskettes instead of tapes. These disks were made from aluminum and coated with rubber to make them sound better than the early vinyl records.
During this time, other manufacturers were also coming out with their versions of the gramophone.
They were constructed of brass and resembled the structure of animal horns. Unfortunately, they made altering notes and tones difficult. As a result, horns of varying lengths were developed, and players were required to move between them throughout a performance.
The first written reference to an instrument called a "horn" appears in 1585. It was described as a "wooden horn," but no one knew what kind of wood it was made from. It was probably some sort of valve instrument like our trumpet or cornet.
The word "horn" comes from the Latin hōrĭnus, which means "animal's head."
Before the development of modern instruments, musicians relied on horns, trumpets, and other wind instruments to produce music. They were used by soloists and ensembles alike. Even though brass instruments were played with great skill and artistry, most people would have been unable to identify the musician based on his or her instrument alone.
During this time period, there were two types of horns: true and false. True horns are made of metal (usually silver or gold) and use valves to alter their sound. These are the horns that you see pictured on monuments and in paintings. False horns are made of wood and do not have valves; instead, they are flat at the end.
Horns were first explicitly observed being employed as musical instruments during 16th-century operas, transitioning from a means of communication to a means of creating music. During this time period, keys were not yet in use for horn playing; instead, holes were drilled into the mouthpiece to produce certain pitches when air was blown through them.
In 17th-century France, musicians began using valves to change the pitch of their horns. The first valve system consisted of two small wooden blocks that could be inserted into holes drilled into the bell of the horn to alter its tone. Later modifications included adding more valves or adding metal plates to cover the holes. Horns with valves could produce any note within their range by changing which holes were covered.
French horns became popular among military bands because of their distinctive sound—high and piercing like that of a trumpet. This allowed soldiers to identify friends and foes across large distances. In fact, the term "horn" comes from the French word "oreiller," which means "pillow." Because the instrument was used to signal troops at night, it acquired the nickname "nightingale's horn".
Valves on horns came about long after the first instruments were built.
Instrument made of brass The wind instrument Aerophone invented by Louis Daguerre in 1839. Also called dauphin horn because it was originally used by sailors on ships named Dauphin.
The term "French horn" comes from its early use in France and Belgium to signal landings of ships, since it can be played while floating in water. It is also known as a military bugle due to its use during wars.
The horn has two valves that control the flow of air through the tube. When the player blows into the mouthpiece, the air flows through the first valve which makes a low note; when he pushes the bellows down, the air flows through both valves making a high note.
The horn is usually between 15 and 20 feet long. Shortened horns are used in smaller ensembles or when playing soft passages. Longer horns are required for louder notes or when playing string instruments alongside the horn.
The term "French horn" may also refer to an orchestral instrument similar to the saxophone.
Berliner's discovery defined the basic architecture for the next 100 years of phonographic record players by capturing sound as an undulating side-to-side groove on a flat disc. The Victor Talking Machine Company sold the 1901 Monarch type phonograph (right), which played music recorded on a shellac disc. The Gramophone, patented in 1887 by Emile Berliner, used a copper disk that could be played many times over.
In conclusion, Berliner's gramophone changed the world of music forever by providing a practical method for recording and playing back songs.
The English Horn The English Horn belongs to the double-reed family of woodwind instruments, which also includes the bassoon, contrabassoon, oboe, and English Horn, as well as less frequent instruments such as the oboe d'amore and the heckelphone, or bass oboe. Sound is produced by passing air through a pair of "reeds" on an English horn. These are made from the dried shell of the buffalo horn, which is split down the middle and polished smooth. On older instruments, the reed assembly may be made from natural materials such as cane or bamboo. The mouthpiece for the English horn is similar to that of the cor anglais, with the addition of a cavity behind it for the insertion of a pegbox. A single hole at the top of the instrument's body allows air to enter through the bell. This hole is usually plugged, but sometimes left open to allow some wind to reach the chest register.
The English horn makes a mellow, sweet sound, ideal for accompanying singing voices. It is commonly used in church music and oratorios, but can also appear in other types of compositions. The English horn is one of the few instruments that can play in F below middle C. It can also play in D above high C, although it is then called a transverse flute rather than an English horn.
The term "English horn" comes from its early use in England and Ireland to accompany singers in religious services.