Mount Rushmore is regarded as a high-relief sculpture. We can see virtually all of each head, but none of them are complete, and they are anchored to the mountain. The sculpture in the circle is freestanding, with no attachments to the surroundings. The majority of sculptures and portrait busts are made in the round.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a gigantic sculpture cut into South Dakota's Black Hills area. The sculpture, which was completed in 1941 under the guidance of Gutzon Borglum and his son Lincoln, stands approximately 60 feet tall and depicts the faces of U.S. presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham. Lincoln is not depicted because he died before being elected president.
The sculpture is located about 20 miles south of Rapid City on federal land managed by the U.S. Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management. It is visible from several interstate highways and has become a popular destination for travelers who take photos with their cars as they pass by.
In May 2015, a fire destroyed or severely damaged many of the memorial's hair statues. An investigation later found that the fire may have been intentionally set.
Firefighters were called to the scene at around 2:30 p.m. After arriving on-scene, they began fighting the fire against the wind and weather conditions. Although the fire did cause some damage to the monument, it was contained within five minutes and no officials reported any injuries during this time.
This incident occurred just months after another fire broke out at Mount Rushmore itself. On April 15, 2016, firefighters were again called to the scene of the Black Hills monument after reports of smoke coming from the nose of one of the presidents.
Four massive sculptures portraying the faces of U.S. Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt are carved into the southeastern face of Mount Rushmore in South Dakota's Black Hills National Forest. The presidents were chosen by a committee that included several prominent Americans of the time. They selected these men because they considered them to be the most important leaders in the founding of our country.
Mount Rushmore is located about 30 miles south of Rapid City, South Dakota. It was created as an artistic tribute to the men who had a major impact on shaping our nation into what it is today. The artists who created the sculpture wanted to make sure that everyone who walked by their work knew exactly who this group of people were that they had memorialized.
People have been carving figures onto mountains since long before Mount Rushmore was even thought of. One of the first known carvings was done by Native Americans around 15,000 years ago. Since then, many more carvings have been done over the centuries by various groups of people. Some of the earlier ones may not even have been seen by anyone other than the artist themselves.
In 1919, a farmer named Vernon Jackson saw one of these early drawings carved into a mountain side and decided he wanted to carve out his own piece too.
A coin is an excellent example of relief sculpture: the inscription, date, and figure—sometimes a portrait—are all elevated slightly above a flat surface. The sculpture is called low relief or bas-relief when the image is only slightly elevated, as with a coin. Low relief is used for images that are completely submerged in plaster, such as those found on tombstones.
High relief is when the subject is fully exposed and appears three-dimensional. A classical example is the Apollo 11 lunar module sitting on the moon. It is partially covered by a rock formation but its components are still clearly visible (except for their color).
Low relief sculptures are easier to make than high-relief sculptures because there is less that can go wrong during production. The artist creates a design on a flat surface, which is then transferred into wax or clay. The sculptor then adds detail to this initial design, sometimes altering it further after seeing how it will look when complete. Finally, the sculptor produces a mold of this design, from which coins or other objects can be cast using a process called lost-wax casting.
The term "bas-relief" comes from the French word "bas", which means "flat". Thus, bas-relief means "flat relief".
Mount Rushmore was designed by South Dakota artist Thomas Hart Benton.