You can usually see the back of the wheel. It is cast if all of the reliefs have distinct textures, smearing, or the writing is high. Forging is easily identified by clear recesses that are stamped or etched. These may be found on spokes, center caps, or some other part of the wheel.
Forging also makes a louder sound when you hit a pothole or drop a wheel weight into it. A cast wheel will barely rattle.
Finally, look at the locknuts. If they are black with red threads, then they are factory made. If not, then you have third-party wheels and you should definitely buy new ones because these are not safe for road use.
The best way to tell if your wheels are forged is to look at them. If they are dark enough, have deep enough holes, and make enough noise when dropped, then they are forged. Otherwise, they are cast.
There should be a silver foil patch with the word 'Five' on the face of the note, just below the see-through window. When tilted, the patch should say 'Pounds.' Above the see-through glass, there's another silver foil patch with a 3D representation of the coronation crown. That's how you know it's real.
Forgers use special tools to create notes with these features. First, they use high-pressure water jets to clean the paper of any previous markings. Then they draw the outline of the note with a laser beam, which forms the basis for all future operations. Finally, they print the note's serial number and other information on top of the outline using inkjet printers. These numbers are then burned into the foil patches using heat presses.
Notes with counterfeit patches can be detected by holding them up to the light: The real ones will have some sort of visual enhancement (such as color) that distinguishes them from regular £5 notes.
For more information about banknotes, visit our What does a $20 bill look like? Article.
If it has been forged [hammered out, generally by hand], the hammer marks are frequently left to show as part of the surface adornment. This happens so frequently that some castings are produced with hammer marks to appear forged when they are not. Forged parts are also known as "work-hardened" parts.
Cast parts usually do not have any mark on them indicating how they were made. They may have casting defects such as gas bubbles or voids where metal was not filled in during production. These defects will appear as holes when viewed under magnification.
Forged and cast parts can be difficult to distinguish without using a microscope or other high-powered tool. The forging process produces a more homogeneous material with fewer defects than casting. However, even with forges, there are sometimes casting defects introduced during production.
The separating lines on the counterweights are the best and most definite way to identify a forged crank. The rough spot on a forged object will be broad and uneven. Where the mold was parted, a cast component (pictured) will have an extremely sharp, well-defined line. This line may or may not be visible after cleaning.
Forged cranks can be identified by other characteristics as well. For example, there will be clear differences in the thickness of the rod arm compared to that of a cast one. A forger would also take great care not to damage the surface of the crank arms during the casting process. These items should be able to help you identify a forged crank if you come across one in your water pump assembly.
Forged steel has many advantages over cast iron for manufacturing components that need to withstand high temperatures or heavy loads. The quality of forged products is usually higher because there is less chance of contamination from the casting process. They are also cheaper than cast products due to the lower cost of raw materials.
The type of metal used to forge a product will also affect its weight. Forged products made from light metals such as aluminum or magnesium will be much lighter than those made from iron or steel. This is good information to have when trying to decide which parts to replace on your boat.
How Examiners Detect Forgery