When paraphrasing, you must still include a parenthetical citation to show where you received the concept. The author and date must be included when attributing paraphrased content, according to APA. It's also a good idea (but not essential) to provide the page number.
Paraphrases should be used to describe concepts or ideas that cannot be expressed in full sentences. They are often used when quoting large amounts of text or when wanting to avoid repetitive writing. Using paraphrases can also help to broaden your essay by showing how different perspectives on an issue can be useful.
As with any other type of quotation, paraphrases must be cited. This means that you need to indicate which part of the text is being quoted and then explain what the quote means or expresses. For example: "The painter Edward Hopper used imagery from his own life to express his feelings about loneliness." Would now consider this to be a paraphrase rather than a direct quote? Yes, because he is only describing how certain images make him feel without naming any specific ones. Therefore, he needs to cite the source of the quote - in this case it's because it is one of Hopper's paintings that is available for public viewing at many museums worldwide.
It is important to note that when you are citing a paraphrase, you are actually referring to the original source.
If you are paraphrasing a concept from another book, you just need to provide the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, although APA recommends that you additionally include the page number (although it is not required). For example, if I were to quote an idea from George Bernard Shaw's 1911 play Pygmalion, I would say so in my essay and include this citation: "Shaw, G. B. (1911), 'My Name Is Shaw, Not Gould,' The New York Times Magazine, February 16, 2011." Note that I have also included the date when the article was published.
It is important to remember that citations are references to other sources; therefore, they should always be accurate. If you copy and paste information from another website or paper, make sure to include all credits using the following format: Author name, Year published, Page number.
When you quote or paraphrase from a source (book, article, or website), you must provide a parenthetical citation. The author's name, year of publication, and page number are often included in parentheses at the conclusion of the phrase. "This is a direct quote" (Chapman, 2019, p. 126).
When you allude to, summarize, paraphrase, or reference another source, include an in-text citation. Every in-text citation in your article must be accompanied by a comparable item in your reference list. The APA in-text citation style, for example, employs the author's last name and the year of publication, as in: (Field, 2005). Using Field as our example, we could then refer to this study in our text by using its full title: "The effects of job insecurity on employee stress: An empirical study of civil servants in the United Kingdom."
Citations are important tools for tracing the origins of ideas and information. Without citations, readers cannot follow the evidence that leads from theory to conclusion. Even if your audience is familiar with your topics, they will not be able to follow your arguments if you fail to reference your sources.
References are also necessary if you wish to properly credit others' work. You should always give credit where it is due. This is especially important when publishing scientific papers. Scientists usually have many more findings than they can report in a single article; therefore, they need other researchers to pursue up-and-coming areas of research so as not to duplicate efforts. If scientists don't cite their sources, then they are essentially claiming these results themselves. This is unacceptable since a large portion of each scientist's time must be spent reading and analyzing data rather than writing about it.
Finally, references provide context.
Each quotation citation should include a parenthetical page number, as well as the author and year of publication of the cited material. If the paragraph then paraphrases new material from a different point in the source or from another source, extra citation should be included in the paragraph. This is called "in-text" citing.
In other words, you should give more attention to making your quotations accurate and appropriate than simply including page numbers. In fact, some scholars believe that including too many quotes can actually hinder your paper because it makes it difficult to write beyond the quoted material.
It is important to note that when you are quoting extensively from one source, you must provide all relevant reference information for that source. Failure to do so will result in your work being considered non-scholarly which will damage your chances of getting your paper accepted by the journal.
The easiest way to ensure that you include proper references for all your sources is to use bibliography pages. These can be created using any bibliographic software program such as BiblioPAD (free trial version available on their website) or Reference Manager (also free). Simply type in the names of each source you are quoting from and click save. The software will then generate a complete list of all the books, articles, websites, and other sources used throughout your paper.
Page numbers are not required for in-text citations of paraphrases and summaries. A page number is required for quotes that include precise words from a source. A reference list item for the paraphrased or summarized item requires nothing more than what is "typical" for a reference of its type. For example, under 10th grade education in your state's law, you would cite this as follows: "The Chicago Public Schools website, updated annually, contains information about the quality of education provided by each school district within the city."
In other words, yes, you still need to include a in-text citation and a reference entry for a paraphrase or summary.
Include the page number for direct quotations, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). Do not include page numbers for footnotes or endnotes; they will be incorporated into the list of references.
Citations are usually placed at the end of articles, essays, and books. However, if you are writing about different topics in several publications, then each contribution should have its own reference list. A single article may contain multiple citations of other works. When this is the case, make sure that each reference is listed under the right topic or subtopic within the reference list.
References can be any written material that provides information about your sources of information. These could be books, journals, websites, or even the Wikipedia entry on subjects related to your work. References should be listed in order of importance, with the most relevant first. In general, it is best to use published materials as references, rather than personal emails or conversations with others. This is because papers that have been published in peer-reviewed journals or similar resources are more likely to be accurate than something written by someone who is not an expert in the field.
When referencing another person's work, it is important to give them credit where it is due.
If you are citing more than once from the same author within a paragraph, you do not need to provide a full citation for each quotation or paraphrase; please see "When to Include the Year in Citations Appearing More Than Once in a Paragraph" from the APA Style Blog and our Visual Guide to Citing Paragraphs for information on when to include the year in citations appearing more than once in a paragraph.