Simply write your paragraph, add a superscripted number or whatever reference technique you're using at the conclusion, and include the standard information about the source from which you obtained this information in a footnote or endnote. A reference does not have to be an exact quote, and it is frequently not. Rather, a reference is any piece of information that helps explain or support what you've written. For example, if you are discussing how many children should live in each family, and one idea presented in the argument is that families who have more children will eventually inherit the world when they die, this would be a valid reference.
References can be any word or phrase used to identify a source of information or knowledge. These could be books, articles, websites, records, documents, databases, etc. The only requirement is that the source must be available to others who might want to examine it. For example, if you are writing about how children learn language, and you mention that German children hear much more language than other children, this would be a valid reference. In order to protect the privacy of people mentioned in references, those names should not be included within the text itself. Instead, refer to them by number or letter after identifying information has been removed.
When referencing multiple sources, it is acceptable to list them all at the end of your essay with the following notation: [Source #1]...
If you cite a paragraph from another source verbatim, place it in quotation marks or in a quotation block, and include one citation to the source at the conclusion. It gets a little trickier if you have an entire paragraph referring to one source but don't really quote it. In that case, you need to include more than one citation to the source, which means more than one reference number in the bibliography or works cited list.
An example of a paraphrased paragraph would be: "The author of this article argues that because synthesizing chemicals from renewable resources is difficult, expensive, and not yet efficient enough, we should continue using non-renewable sources for now." This would require two citations: one to the author and one to the original text. If the author's argument is indeed as stated in the example, they would be cited as such: "Smith claims that because X is difficult, expensive, and not yet efficient enough, we should continue using Y instead." The original text would be cited as "The American Chemical Society," with the author's argument listed after it in parentheses.
In-text citations should be written directly into sentences to be incorporated into the material you are citing or paraphrasing. When mentioning a single author's work, for example, insert the concept or phrase first, followed by the author's last name and the year of publication in parentheses. For multiple authors, include their names in the citation with no space between entries. You can also use titles, abstracts, and index numbers as cited sources.
For print sources, include the date of publication and the location (city, state, country). If the source is online, include its URL (web address) and the date it was published.
An in-text citation should appear everywhere you cite or paraphrase a source in your writing, directing the reader to the whole reference. Citations occur in the text in brackets in Harvard style. An in-text citation includes the author's last name, the year of publication, and, if applicable, a page number. For example, the sentence "The Wall Street Journal reports that students today are more stressed than ever before" would be cited as Blumberg et al. (1996) in a standard English quotation.
In academic writing, in-text citations are used to refer back to sources mentioned in the text. In-text citations are required for quotations and paraphrases and are useful when referring to multiple sources. In addition to the parenthetical citation format discussed below, in-text citations can also be presented in endnotes and bibliographies. Academic editors typically require in-text citations when submitting articles for publication.
In non-academic writing, in-text citations are used to highlight information from other sources that support your argument or point of view. For example, a journalist may use an in-text citation to indicate that a quote appears on page X of Y magazine. Or, if a quote or paragraph is important to the story, that fact may be stated in the main body of the article without giving a reference. Readers then know where to find the information if they want to read it further.
Make a bibliography that includes citations and references.
Making Use of In-Text Citation Include the page number for direct quotations, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources that do not contain page numbers, such as websites and e-books, use a paragraph number, such as: (Field, 2005, para. 1). Avoid using the word "where" in your citation because this implies that there is a specific place that contains the information being cited.
Citations are important elements in any academic paper or essay because they provide evidence to support what you wrote. In other words, they help readers know where to find further information on your topics. There are several types of citations used in different situations. In this lesson, we will discuss how to properly cite a paragraph.
First, decide whether the source is a book, article, or interview. If it's an article, note the author's name and the title. If it's a website, look for a link called "article online." If you can't find anything, then it's probably a book. Book titles are usually written in capital letters and include the author's name and address, so look for these when browsing libraries or shopping for books.
Now that you know the source, find the paragraph you want to cite. Start reading at the beginning of the paragraph until you reach the part you want to reference. This is known as an in-text citation.
In-text citations feature the author's last name followed by a page number in parentheses. Here's Smith's exact quote: (p. 8). If the author's name is not mentioned, use the title's initial word or words. Use the same formatting as in the Works Cited list, including quotation marks.
Citation inside the text The contemporary MLA-based technique employs parenthetical citation. After a quote or paraphrased passage, write the author's last name and the page number you referred to in brackets. As an example (Adams 22). If no author is available, designate the work in another, more succinct manner. Examples include (Adams) for a single sentence, and (Adams and Chase) for a pair of sentences connected by a conjunction.
Citations are usually placed within parentheses at the end of each quotation or excerpt. They are also often included in endnotes or bibliography entries. When writing your own material, you must use citations as well; this is especially important when quoting other people's words or ideas. Failure to do so may result in your articles being rejected by academic journals that require citations.
In English academia, there are two main styles for citing sources: the Harvard system and the Vancouver system. Both systems are based on the idea that readers should be able to identify the source of information directly from reading the article. Using these systems makes it easier for editors and reviewers to find and correct errors in cited works (or even in your own references!).
The Harvard system requires authors to use specific symbols when citing books, articles, and other works published in print. These symbols are inserted into the text where they are needed and appear in a separate section called the bibliography.