When there is no known author for a source, use the work's shorter title rather of the author's name. If it's a short work (such as an article), put the title in quotation marks; italicize it if it's a larger work (e.g., plays, novels, television series, full Web sites), and provide a page number if one is available. If you are writing about more than one such work by a single author, list them all with separate citations. In general, when citing sources that have not been cited before, start with the most recent publication date to ensure maximum exposure.
Citing sources without naming the author can be difficult for readers to follow. If you cannot think of a way to identify the author, consider noting that the source is anonymous or using the field-label-last-name form of citation. You could also write "Source: unknown" if you want to avoid specifying any details about the author.
An example of a source without an author would be a website. When you are writing about something found on the Internet, such as a news story, email, blog post, or video, you need to give credit to the author or authors. There are several ways you can do this.
Use a shorter title for the work if no author is identified. If it's a short work (such as an article), put it in quote marks; if it's a lengthy work (such as a book or an entire website), italicize it and give page numbers (if there are any).
Citation in-text/paraphrase Use a shorter title for the work if no author is identified. Include the date if available.
In-text/endnote Cite the source by number within the endnotes. Use the full title of the work if it's a book, play, or article. If it's a chapter or section, use its abbreviation. Put the date at the end of the note.
In-text/footnote Cite the source by name and date. Put the location of the footnote on the page next to where it is cited.
In-text/hyperlink Reference a source directly in your text with a hyperlinked label. The label can be any word or phrase that identifies the source within your text.
In-text/image Attach files to your email. In Internet Explorer, click the File menu and select Send As... Select HTML as the file type.
Author Unknown If the work does not have an author, reference it in the signal phrase by its title or use the first word or two in the parenthesis. The titles of books and reports are italicized, while the titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are surrounded by quotation marks. Author unknown refers to a work that has no identified author.
If no author or creator is given, begin the citation with the title of the material you are citing. Use italics or quote marks to highlight the first one, two, or three important words from the title (the same way it is written in your Works Cited list). The rest of the title should be sufficient for readers to find other works by or about the subject.
There are several ways to cite materials that have no author listed. If the material is published, use the author's last name and year published. If the material is unpublished, such as an audio recording, film, or software program, then there is no standard format for giving credit. You may want to include the title of the material in your reference, along with an indication of how you obtained it if you can recall that information. Otherwise, just provide a short description in order to avoid using up too much space in your paper.
References are also needed when using information found in books or articles that others have written. In general, you will need to give credit to these authors, even if you are not sure who they are. You can start each reference with the word "see" or "read" to indicate that what follows is a citation. For example, if you are using information found in a book called "My Favorite Teacher," you would say "see My Favorite Teacher" or "read on page xviii of My Favorite Teacher."
In-Text Page Numbers (Internet Resources) .05