In-text citations feature the author's last name followed by a page number in parentheses. Here's Smith's exact quote: (p. 8). If the author's name is not given, use the title's first word or words. Use the same formatting as in the works referenced list, including quotation marks. A parenthetical citation refers to information in another source. For example, "The president said that America would be willing to talk with Russia" could be cited as follows: (Bush, George W.). 2007 April 7. Address to the Nation on Iraq (online). Retrieved 2012 August 20.
Citation within the text The contemporary MLA-based technique employs parenthetical citation. After a quote or paraphrased section, type the author's last name and the page number you referred to in brackets. As an example (Adams 22). If no author is available, indicate the work in another, more succinct manner. Popular culture references may be cited as Kress 101-102.
Citations in the Text
The MLA in-text citation style, for example, employs the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived (Smith 163). If the source does not utilize page numbers, omit the number from the parenthetical citation: (Smith).
There are two methods to achieve this: with a signal phrase, which means the in-text citation will just include the page number(s), or with a parenthetical citation, which includes the author's last name (or the title, in the case of an authorless work) and the page number(s).
When quoting straight from a source, use quotation marks to enclose the cited part. At the conclusion of the quotation, provide an in-text reference with the author's name and page number, such as this: "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). Here's a verbatim quotation from the film "Trouble" (22).
Making Use of In-Text Citations
In-text citation in MLA style is done using the author-page technique. This implies that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived must be included in the text, and a complete citation must be included on your Works Cited page.
In APA style, in-text citations are done using the first sentence approach. In other words, when citing an excerpt from a longer work, you should only use part of the first sentence. The rest of the sentence or paragraph should be used to provide context. Then, when referencing this passage later in your paper, you can simply refer to it by its first line or sentence.
In Chicago style, in-text citations are done using the first word approach. That is, you should only use parts of the first word of the quoted material - not the whole phrase or sentence. Then, when referencing this portion of the text later in your paper, you can simply refer to it by its first letter or word.
Evidence based writing uses multiple sources of information to come to a conclusion. As such, it often requires the reader to analyze different types of data before coming to a judgment. For example, when writing an argumentative essay, you might need to reference specific facts and statistics while also including your own opinions. You can't simply state your opinion and expect the audience to accept it.