Include the author of the post, the date, the name of the discussion thread, and the course URL when mentioning a discussion post in your reference list.
Instead of "lecture," use the phrases "conversation" or "presentation." If you want to mention a broad class discussion, merely give the course name, the phrase "discussion" rather than "lecture," and the date. For example, "Chemistry 1-3" refers to three lectures given in 2001. The same piece of writing could include references to discussions held that year in other courses too, if relevant.
See also our guide to citing online sources, here.
An in-text citation should appear everywhere you cite or paraphrase a source in your writing, directing the reader to the whole reference. Citations occur in the text in brackets in Harvard style. An in-text citation includes the author's last name, the year of publication, and, if applicable, a page number. For example, the sentence "The Wall Street Journal reports that students today are more stressed than ever before" would be cited as Wallerstein (1996).
Citations are important tools for writers to distinguish information in texts and avoid plagiarism. They also help readers find specific sources of information on which to base judgment. In addition, citations are required by many journals, academic conferences, and government agencies when submitting articles or other forms of scholarly work.
There are two types of in-text citations: direct and indirect. With direct quotations, you simply type the quotation itself. For example, if reading George Washington's first inaugural address, you would copy its contents directly into your essay. You could not accurately quote only part of an utterance though; instead, include the speaker's name along with the date written next to it. Direct quotations are the most accurate method of in-text citing because they use exactly what someone said. Indirect quotations are paraphrases of quotes or summaries of speeches or writings taken from others' works. With these, you must provide the source of the quotation.
Individuals' email correspondence or interviews should be parenthetically noted in the main text of your report. Citations are inserted into the context of the conversation. Give the communicator's initials and surname, as well as as specific a date as feasible. If there is no date, give the communication a general time period.
In addition to the formal citation methods, researchers should also be aware of how editors list letters to bylines or authorship credits. These include E-mails to Lists, Blog Comments, Social Media Posts, etc.
If you were to reference an E-mail exchange with multiple participants, it would be appropriate to use parentheses to distinguish each person's contribution. For example: "John suggested we try calling Bob at his office phone number, which had changed recently."
Email conversations are different from interviews in that you cannot accurately capture the tone or substance of a conversation through citations alone. However, including some form of annotation (such as a timestamp) will help readers understand what was said during the communication process.
"Each reference referenced in text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text," according to the APA Publication Manual (6th ed). (p. 174). Remember to keep those extra sources in mind for your next work, and remember to credit what you use and utilize what you cite.
When mentioning a class lecture, include the lecture title in quotation marks after the professor's name, the course name and number after the lecture title, and the words "class lecture" (without quotation quotes) after the location. For example: Professor Smith's Current Research class lectures on Experimental Physics.
The fundamentals of a lecture notes reference list entry:
Give your reference page a name. "Annotated Bibliography" or "Annotated List of Works Cited" is another term for "Annotated Bibliography" or "Annotated List of Works Cited." Each annotation should be placed after each citation. Annotations should usually not be longer than a single paragraph. Sources should be organized alphabetically by the first word of each reference. For example, if the source includes the phrase "the Beatles, also known as The Fab Four," then it should be cited as ["The Beatles"](https://www.webpagefx.com/tools/citation-maker/#!/start). A list of references with annotations is called an "annotated bibliography."
See also our help article on how to create and use annotated bibliographies in Microsoft Word.